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Basic Writings of Saint (St.) Thomas Aquinas (2 volumes in

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By calling for an abandonment of reason and risking the survival of the species for the sake of its beliefs and its power, religion is the true evil and the true whore selling its soul for its own survival. Dyson, Robert W. (ed. and trans.). [1999a] Three Royalist Tracts, 1296– 1302: Antequam essent clerici; Disputatio inter Clericum et Militem; An Enquiry Into The Power Of The Pope. In his view, cities must be governed according to justice if they are to become glorious, and justice is impossible without liberty.
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The Syntax of Time: The Phenomenology of Time in Greek

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This awareness is independent of revelation, since even those who deny God and revelation adhere to these principles. He discovers, however, that there is today no one Jewish community, but many fragmented communities, none offering the cultural wealth he needs. An exploration of Chinese thought during a time of monumental change, the period after the fall of the Han dynasty. Generally, Eastern philosophers were not as occupied with questions relating to the nature of God although both Jewish and Islamic philosophers were just as focused on reconciling new ideas with Judaism and Islam as their western colleagues.
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Medieval Modal Logic & Science: Augustine on Scientific

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The most notable work of this German idealism was G. Philosophers are motivated by specific questions such as: What is truth? On the other hand, they offer us the greatest amount of detail that we can grasp with our normal human mental capacity. ����������� So much for our positive descriptions of God. For instance, we may imagine a man looking out on a strange scene: fire burning, lions roaring, soldiers marching, without beholding any part of it, because God did not create in him the corresponding perception of this scene at the time.
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Manuscripts of the Evangelium (Subsidia Mediaevalia)

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In the 20th century, Jean-Paul Sartre dominated existentialism with his logical critique of reasoning and perception. The central notion behind this argument is that natural objects such as plants and animals have built-in purposes. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Thucydides. The reasoning and rationality of the Babylonians developed beyond empirical observation. Cicero held that the laws of nature were more important than the laws of men and governments.
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The Mind of the Middle Ages: An Historical Survey

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These they called “authorities.” Their interpretation and evaluation of the authorities, however, frequently differed. A circle of causes is impossible. (from 5b and 5c by modus tollens) Any item possessing C without dependence on some prior item is a first agent (i. by contrast. Berkeley: University of Thought And Learning (2nd edn.). You’re just trying to get the truest part of yourself out, and its very hard, you know. Al-Ghazali, however, was the first theologian to undertake a systematic refutation of the concept of a necessary causal nexus.
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Some Investigations on Inflation Induced EOQ Models

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The PLATO questions on the progress exam 2010. As against these metaphysical contradictions, as against the artificialities of the metaphysical synthesis, as against the assistance of God, the preestablished harmony, the best possible world, &c., as against this merely artificial understanding, we now find that fixed principles, immanent in mind, have been asserted or maintained respecting what is felt, intuitively perceived and honoured in the cultured human breast.
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The Mediaeval Mind: a History of the Development of Thought

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James of Ascoli (Jacobus de Aesculo) fl. 1310s Franciscan theologian and follower of Scotus. various quodlibetal and disputed questions (part. ed. The answer to the "when" part of this query is straightforward: the late Middle Ages, from around 1100 to 1500 In a book that is well known to scholars of eighteenth‑century intellectual history, Carl Becker showed rare insight into the nature of medieval thought when he characterized it as highly rationalistic. "I know," he explained, "it is the custom to call the thirteenth century an age of faith, and to contrast it with the eighteenth century, which is thought to be preeminently the age of reason."" Becker explains that "since eighteenth‑century writers employed reason to discredit Christian dogma, a `rationalist' in common parlance came to mean an `unbeliever,' one who denied the truth of Christianity.
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The Nature of Natural Philosophy in the Late Middle Ages

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On the other hand, they offer us the greatest amount of detail that we can grasp with our normal human mental capacity. ����������� So much for our positive descriptions of God. Indeed, almost from the beginning it was standard for the orthodox to reproach all those who “looked into the books of the [Greek] philosophers” [8] -even presumably when they did not understand them. Charles Sanders Peirce and William James, who founded pragmatism.
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Medievalia Et Humanistica Studies in Medieval & Renaissance

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Alexander spread many of Aristotle/Plato/Socrates' ideas throughout Europe and Asia. Furthermore, when Indian philosophers ask the question "What is real?" (the subject of metaphysics) and respond by directing their attention to everyday experience and discourse, other interesting parallels to Western traditions become evident. That is, state things clearly enough, explaining any technical terminology, offering examples where they are needed for illustration, and expanding on any cryptic or compressed remarks, so that a person not already familiar with the material would understand what you mean.
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The Leaven of the Ancients (Suny Series, Islam)

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Thus, the goal of Medieval Philosophy became that of "fitting" the rational truths of philosophy into the dogmatic truths of Christianity and thus make it all the more powerful (This powerful influence of Christianity over philosophy would be present from this time, the fourth Century, until the post-modern period of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, when philosophy sees its first vocal atheistic movements).
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